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Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction among Academicians: A Comparative Study between Gender and Generations

Saroja Dhanapal, Sueraya binti Mohd Alwie, Thanam Subramaniam, Deeparechigi Vashu


Job satisfaction is a crucial factor that determines retention of employees in all industries. In the 21st century, with the abundance of job opportunities available to employees, a constant challenge faced by upper management is in the retention of existing employees. Job satisfaction is defined as a general behavior towards an object or job (Okpara, 2006). Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as a positive or pleasant emotional state resulting from a person’s appreciation of his/her own job or experience. Researchers have identified a non-exhaustive list of factors that determine job satisfaction which include factors such as workload, pay, age, gender, educational background, working environment, job security and management (DeVaney and Chen, 2003; Miller, 1980; Souza-Poza, 2000; Weiss, 2002; Udechukwu, 2007). Although extensive research has been done on job satisfaction, the current study is specific in nature as its objectives are not only to determine factors affecting job satisfaction among academicians, but also to identify how the impact of these factors differ among generations and gender. A quantitative research using a survey questionnaire was used as it is believed that perceptions are best identified through this means. The framework adopted in this study is a combination of Herzberg and Maslow’s theory. In line with this, a purposive sample comprising of 100 academicians of different gender and generations from various private institutions located in the Klang Valley was used.


job satisfaction; gender; generations; Herzberg and Maslow’s Theory

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